Colony-stimulating factor (CSF) any of a number of glycoproteins responsible for the proliferation, differentiation, and functional activation of hematopoietic progenitor cells; specific factors are named for the cell lines that they stimulate. Used to promote bone marrow proliferation in aplastic anemia, following cytotoxic chemotherapy, or following bone marrow transplantation. Types include granulocyte, granulocyte-macrophage, and macrophage colony-stimulating factors. Factor d a factor that when activated serves as a serine esterase in the alternative complement pathway. Decay accelerating factor (DAF) a protein of most blood as well as endothelial and epithelial cells, cd55 (see cd antigen it protects the cell membranes from attack by autologous complement. Endothelial-derived relaxant factor ( endothelial-derived relaxing factor ) ( endothelium-derived relaxing factor (edrf) nitric oxide.
Antirachitic factor vitamin. Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) a hormone produced in the cardiac atrium; an inhibitor of renin secretion and thus of the production of angiotensin, and a stimulator of aldosterone release. Its effect is increased excretion of water and sodium and a lowering of blood pressure. Factor b a complement component that participates in the alternative complement pathway. Blastogenic factor lymphocyte-transforming factor. Carative f's in the theory of human caring, nacken a set of ten factors that offer a descriptive topology of interventions including (1) a humanistic-altruistic system of values; (2) steunzolen faith-hope; (3) sensitivity to self and others; (4) a helping-trusting, human care relationship; (5) the expression. Christmas factor factor ix, one of the coagulation factors. Citrovorum factor folinic acid. Clotting f's coagulation factors. C3 nephritic factor (C3 nef) an autoantibody that stabilizes the alternative complement pathway c3 convertase, preventing its inactivation by factor h, resulting in complete consumption of plasma C3; it is found in the serum of many patients with type ii membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. Coagulation f's see coagulation factors.
Tumor necrosis factor alpha, wikipedia
A preparation of factor viii administered intravenously for the aanbieding prevention or treatment of hemorrhage in patients with hemophilia a and the goedkoop treatment of von Willebrand disease, hypofibrinogenemia, and coagulation factor xiii deficiency. Included are preparations derived from human plasma (antihemophilic factor, cryoprecipitated antihemophilic factor) or porcine plasma (antihemophilic factor porcine) and those produced by recombinant technology antihemophilic factor recombinant). Antihemophilic factor A factor viii, one of the coagulation factors. Antihemophilic factor B factor ix, one of the coagulation factors. Antihemophilic factor C factor xi, one of the coagulation factors. Antihemorrhagic factor vitamin. Antinuclear factor (ANF) antinuclear antibody.
Alles over voetproblemen
30 31 Activation of nf-κb : tradd recruits traf2 and rip. Traf2 in turn recruits the multicomponent protein kinase ikk, enabling the serine-threonine kinase rip to activate. An inhibitory protein, iκbα, that normally binds to nf-κb and inhibits its translocation, is phosphorylated by ikk and subsequently degraded, releasing nf-κb. Nf-κb is a heterodimeric transcription factor that translocates to the nucleus and mediates the transcription of a vast array of proteins involved in cell survival and proliferation, inflammatory response, and anti- apoptotic factors. Activation of the mapk pathways: Of the three major mapk cascades, tnf induces a strong activation of the stress -related jnk group, evokes moderate response of the p38-mapk, and is responsible for minimal activation of the classical erks. Traf2/Rac activates the jnk -inducing upstream kinases of mlk2 / mlk3, 32 tak1, mekk1 and ask1 (either directly or through gcks and Trx, respectively). Src- vav- rac axis activates mlk2/MLK3 and these kinases phosphorylate mkk7, which then activates jnk.
28 The 17- kilodalton (kDa) tnf protomers (185-amino acid-long) are composed of two antiparallel β-pleated sheets with antiparallel β-strands, forming a 'jelly roll' β-structure, typical for tuinkussenopbergbox the tnf family, but also found in viral capsid proteins. Cell signaling edit tnf can bind two receptors, tnfr1 ( tnf receptor type 1; CD120a; p55/60) and tnfr2 (tnf receptor type 2; CD120b; p75/80). Tnfr1 is 55-kda and tnfr2 is 75-kda. 29 tnfr1 is expressed in most tissues, and can be fully activated by both the membrane-bound and soluble trimeric forms of tnf, whereas tnfr2 is found typically in cells of the immune system, and respond to the membrane-bound form of the tnf homotrimer. As most information regarding tnf signaling is derived from tnfr1, the role of tnfr2 is likely underestimated.
Signaling pathway of tnfr1. Dashed grey lines represent multiple steps. Upon contact with their ligand, tnf receptors also form trimers, their tips fitting into the grooves formed between tnf monomers. This binding causes a conformational change to occur in the receptor, leading to the dissociation of the inhibitory protein sodd from the intracellular death domain. This dissociation enables the adaptor protein tradd to bind to the death domain, serving as a platform for subsequent protein binding. Following tradd binding, three pathways can be initiated.
10 kilo afvallen: de 12 beste tips
Tracey and Cerami discovered the key mediator role of tnf in lethal septic shock, and identified the therapeutic effects of monoclonal anti-tnf antibodies. 20 21 More recently, research in the laboratory of Mark mattson has shown that tnf can prevent the death/ apoptosis of neurons by a mechanism involving activation of the transcription factor nf-kappaB which induces the expression of Mn-sod and Bcl-2. The human tnf gene ( tnfa ) was cloned in 1985. 22 It maps to chromosome.3, spans about 3 kilobases and contains 4 exons. The last exon shares similarity with lymphotoxin alpha (lta, known also as tnf-β). 23 The 3' utr of tnfα contains an au-rich element (ARE).
Structure edit tnf is primarily produced as a 233- amino acid -long type ii transmembrane protein arranged in stable homotrimers. 24 25 From this membrane-integrated form the soluble homotrimeric cytokine (sTNF) is released via proteolytic cleavage by the metalloprotease tnf alpha converting enzyme (tace, also called adam17 ). 26 The soluble 51 kda trimeric stnf tends to dissociate at concentrations below the nanomolar range, thereby losing its bioactivity. The secreted form of human tnfα takes on a triangular pyramid shape, and weighs around 17-kD. Both the secreted and the membrane bound forms are biologically active, although the specific functions of each is controversial. But, both forms do have overlapping and distinct biological activities. 27 The common house mouse tnfα and human tnf are structurally different.
10 kilo afvallen Vandaag starten!
These concepts were extended to systemic disease in 1981, when Ian. Clark, from the australian National University, in collaboration with Elizabeth Carswell. Old's group, working with pre-sequencing era mckenzie data, reasoned that excessive production of tnf causes malaria disease and endotoxin poisoning. 15 16 The cDNAs encoding lt and tnf were cloned in 1984 17 and were revealed to be similar. The binding of tnf to its receptor and its displacement by lt confirmed the functional homology between the two factors. The sequential and functional homology of tnf and lt led to the renaming of tnf as strottenhoofdkanker tnfα (this article) and lt as tnfβ. In 1985, Bruce. Beutler and Anthony cerami discovered that cachectin (a hormone which induces cachexia ) was actually tnf. 18 They then identified tnf as a mediator of lethal endotoxin poisoning.
5, types of Arthritis That Affect the Shoulder
Tnf can be produced ectopically in the setting of malignancy déformation and parallels parathyroid hormone both in causing secondary hypercalcemia and in the cancers with which excessive production is associated. Contents Discovery edit The theory of an anti-tumoral response of the immune system in vivo was recognized by the physician William. Gale a granger from the University of California, irvine, reported a cytotoxic factor produced by lymphocytes and named it lymphotoxin (LT). 12 Credit for this discovery is shared. Ruddle from Yale University, who reported the same activity in a series of back-to-back articles published in the same month. 13 Subsequently, in 1975. Old from Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, new York, reported another cytotoxic factor produced by macrophages and named it tumor necrosis factor (TNF). 14 Both factors were described based on their ability to kill mouse fibrosarcoma l-929 cells.
Epoxy sic color, epoxy os color New. Tumor necrosis factor tnf, tumor necrosis factor alpha, tnfα, cachexin, or cachectin ) is a cell signaling protein ( cytokine ) involved in perskindol systemic inflammation and is one of the cytokines that make up the acute phase reaction. It is produced chiefly by activated macrophages, although it can be produced by many other cell types such. CD4 lymphocytes, nk cells, neutrophils, mast cells, eosinophils, and neurons. 5, the primary role of tnf is in the regulation of immune cells. Tnf, being an endogenous pyrogen, is able to induce fever, apoptotic cell death, cachexia, inflammation and to inhibit tumorigenesis and viral replication and respond to sepsis via, il1 il6 producing cells. Dysregulation of tnf production has been implicated in a variety of human diseases including Alzheimer's disease, 6 cancer, 7 major depression, 8 psoriasis 9 and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). 10 Though controversial, studies of depression and ibd are currently being linked to tnf levels. 11 Recombinant tnf is used as an immunostimulant under the inn tasonermin.
Acromioclavicular (AC) joint Osteoarthritis - shoulder
Factor ix see coagulation factors. Factor perskindol X see coagulation factors. Factor xi see coagulation factors. Factor xii see coagulation factors. Factor xiii see coagulation factors. Angiogenesis factor a substance that causes the growth of new blood vessels, found in tissues with high metabolic requirements such as cancers and the retina. It is also released by hypoxic macrophages at the edges or outer surface of a wound and initiates revascularization in wound healing. Antihemophilic factor (AHF). Factor viii, one of the coagulation factors.
see coagulation factors. Factor V see coagulation factors. Factor vi see coagulation factors. Factor vii see coagulation factors. Factor viii see coagulation factors.